Neutron stars and Pulsar timing arrays as Axion giant gyroscopes

Author(s)

Liu, Yiming, Luo, Jinneng, Sun, Sichun

Abstract

We consider the three-dimensional rotating motions of neutron stars blown by the "axion wind". Neutron star precession and spin can change from the magnetic moment coupling to the oscillating axion background field, in analogy to the gyroscope motions with a driving force and the laboratory Nuclear Magnetic Resonance(NMR) detections of the axion. This effect modulates the pulse arrival time of the pulsar timing arrays. It shows up as a signal on the timing residual and two-point correlation function on the recent data of Nanograv and PPTA. The current measurement of PTAs can thus cast constraints on the axion-nucleon coupling as g_{ann}~ 10^{-12}{GeV}^{-1}.

Figures

Upper limits on the timing residual of pulsar generated by the oscillating dark matter, as a function of frequency/axion's mass. The gray line is the recently released NanoGrav data\cite{NANOGrav:2023gor}. The blue, black, and red lines are the upper limits for the coupling constant $g_{aNN}$ equals $10^{-12}\mathrm{GeV^{-1}},  10^{-12.5}\mathrm{GeV^{-1}, 10^{-13}\mathrm{GeV^{-1}}}$ respectively.

Upper limits on the timing residual of pulsar generated by the oscillating dark matter, as a function of frequency/axion's mass. The gray line is the recently released NanoGrav data\cite{NANOGrav:2023gor}. The blue, black, and red lines are the upper limits for the coupling constant $g_{aNN}$ equals $10^{-12}\mathrm{GeV^{-1}}, 10^{-12.5}\mathrm{GeV^{-1}, 10^{-13}\mathrm{GeV^{-1}}}$ respectively.


The angle of separation dependence of the two-point correlation function, normalized to $1$ when $\theta=0$. The dashed curve corresponds to the angular correlation of the timing residuals induced by the gravitational wave background(Hellings-Downs curve) and the solid line represents the correlation of the axion's effect acting on the pulsars.

The angle of separation dependence of the two-point correlation function, normalized to $1$ when $\theta=0$. The dashed curve corresponds to the angular correlation of the timing residuals induced by the gravitational wave background(Hellings-Downs curve) and the solid line represents the correlation of the axion's effect acting on the pulsars.


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